|Requirements from the General Industry Standards |
Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes (1910.23)
(a) Protection for floor openings. (1) Stairway floor openings must have standard railings (as specified in (e)) on all exposed sides (except at the entrance). For seldom-used stairways where traffic across the opening prevents the use of railings, a hinged floor opening cover of standard strength and construction must be used with removable standard railings.
(a.2) Guard ladderway floor openings or platforms like a stairway floor opening with the passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or offset so a person cannot walk directly into the opening.
(a.3) Guard a hatchway or chute floor opening by either of the following.
(a.3.i) Use a hinged floor opening cover of standard strength and construction equipped with standard railings or permanently attached so as to leave only one exposed side. When the opening is not in use, close the cover.
(a.3.ii) Use a removable railing with toeboard on not more than two sides of the opening and fixed standard railings with toeboards on all other exposed sides. When the opening is not in use, keep the removable railings in place. Hatchways or chute openings for materials must be guarded to prevent a person from falling through the opening.
(a.4) Guard skylight openings and holes with standard skylight screens or fixed standard railings on all exposed sides.
(a.5) Guard seldom-used pit or trapdoor floor openings with floor opening covers of standard strength and construction. When uncovered, such openings must be constantly attended or protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings.
(a.6) Manhole floor openings must have standard manhole covers that need not be hinged in place. When uncovered, such openings must be constantly attended or protected by standard railings.
(a.7) Temporary floor openings must have standard railings or be constantly attended.
(a.8) Guard every floor hole that a person could walk into with either: (i) a standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides; or (ii) a floor hole cover of standard strength and construction. When uncovered, the floor hole must be constantly attended or protected by a removable standard railing.
(a.9) A floor hole that no one could accidently walk into must have a cover that leaves no opening wider than 1 inch. The cover must be secured in place to prevent tools or materials from falling through.
(a.10) If doors or gates open directly onto a stairway, provide a platform wide enough so that the swing of the door does not reduce the width to less than 20 inches.
(b) Protection for wall openings and holes. (1) Guard wall openings from which there is a drop of over 4 feet by one of the following: (i) a rail, roller, picket fence, half door or equivalent barrier. Provide a removable toeboard or equivalent where there is exposure below to falling materials. When the opening is not in use, keep the guard in position regardless of a door on the opening. In addition, provide a grab handle of standard strength and mounting on each side of the opening with its center about 4 feet above the floor level; or (ii) an extension platform with standard side rails, or the equivalent, onto which materials can be hoisted for handling.
(b.2) Guard chute wall openings from which there is a drop of over 4 feet as in (b.1) or as required by the conditions.
(b.3) Guard window wall openings at stairway landings, floors, platforms or balconies from which there is drop of over 4 feet and where the bottom of the opening is less than 3 feet above the platform or landing by standard slats, grill work (as in e.11) or railings. Where the window opening is below the landing or platform, provide a standard toeboard.
(b.4) Temporary wall openings must have adequate guards, but the guards need not be of standard construction.
(b.5) Where material may fall through a wall hole, the hole must be protected by a standard toeboard or an enclosing screen, either of solid construction or as specified in (e.11), if the lower edge of the near side of the hole is less than 4 inches above the floor and the far side of the hole is more than 5 feet above the next lower level.
(c) Protection of open-sided floors, platforms and runway. (1) Open-sided floors or platforms at least 4 feet high must have a standard railing (or the equivalent as specified in (e.3)) on all open sides except at the entrance to a ramp, stairway or fixed ladder. The railings must have a toeboard wherever, beneath the open sides: (i) people can pass; (ii) there is moving machinery; and (iii) there is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard.
(c.2) Every runway must have a standard railing or the equivalent as specified in (e.3) on all open sides at least 4 feet high. Wherever tools, machine parts or materials may be used on the runway, provide a toeboard on each exposed side. Railings may be omitted if necessary on one side of runways at least 18 inches wide used exclusively for special purposes (such as oiling, shafting or filling tank cars). Additional guarding not specified here may be essential where people using such runways are exposed to hazards other than falling, such as machinery or electrical equipment.
(c.3) Regardless of height, open-sided floors, walkways, platforms or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment, pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units and similar hazards must have standard railings and toeboards.
(d) Stairway railings and guards (1) Stairs with four or more risers must have standard stair railings or handrails as specified in (i-v). Measure the width of the stair clear of all obstructions except handrails.
(d.1.i) Stairways less than 44 inches wide with both sides enclosed must have at least one handrail, preferably on the right side descending.
(d.1.ii) Stairways less than 44 inches wide with one side open must have at least one stair railing on the open side.
(d.1.iii) Stairways less than 44 inches wide with both sides open must have one stair railing on each side.
(d.1.iv) Stairways between 44 and 88 inches wide must have one handrail on each enclosed side and one stair railing on each open side.
(d.1.v) Stairways over 88 inches wide must have one handrail on each enclosed side, one stair railing on each open side and one intermediate stair railing about midway of the width.
(d.2) Winding stairs must have a handrail offset to prevent walking on portions of the treads less than 6 inches wide.
(e) Railing, toeboards and cover specifications. (1) A standard railing must consist of a top rail, intermediate rail and posts, and have a nominal height of 42 inches. The top rail must be smooth-surfaced. The intermediate rail must be about halfway up. Ends of the rails must not overhang the terminal posts except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard.
(e.2) A stair railing is similar to a standard railing except that it is between 30 and 34 inches high (measured from the top rail to the surface of the tread in line with the face of the riser at the forward edge of the tread).
(e.3.i) For wood railings, posts of 2 x 4 inch stock must be spaced not more than 6 feet apart. Top and intermediate rails must be of at least 2 x 4 inch stock. If the top rail is two right-angle pieces of 1 x 4 inch stock, posts can be 8 feet apart with a 2 x 4 inch intermediate rail.
(e.3.ii) For pipe railings, all pipes must be at least 1 1/2 inches in nominal diameter with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.
(e.3.iii) Structural steel railings must be made of 2 x 2 x 3/8 inch angles or other shapes of equivalent bending strength with posts not more than 8 feet on centers.
(e.3.iv) Railings must be anchored to withstand at least a load of 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail.
(e.3.v) Other types, sizes and arrangements of railing construction are acceptable if they: (A) have a smooth-surfaced top rail 42 inches in nominal height; (B) are strong enough to withstand 200 pounds of top rail pressure; and (C) provide protection equivalent to a standard intermediate rail.
(e.4) A standard toeboard must be 4 inches high and securely fastened in place with not more than 1/4 inch clearance above floor level. It must be made of substantial material, either solid or with openings not over 1 inch in any dimension. Provide paneling from the floor to the intermediate or top rail where material is piled so high that a toeboard would not provide protection.
(e.5.i) A handrail is a lengthwise member mounted directly on a wall or partition by means of brackets attached to the lower side of the handrail so that the top and sides of the handrail are smooth. The handrail must furnish an adequate handhold for anyone grasping it to avoid falling. The ends of the handrail must not constitute a projection hazard.
(e.5.ii) Handrails must be 30 to 34 inches high (measured from the upper surface of the handrail to the surface of the tread in line with the face of the riser or to the surface of the ramp).
(e.5.iii) Handrail size must correspond to the following. Hardwood must be at least 2 inches in diameter and metal pipe must be at least 1 1/2 inches in diameter. Brackets must provide at least 3 inches of clearance between the handrail and the wall or wall projection. Brackets must not be more than 8 feet apart.
(e.5.iv) Handrails must be mounted to withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the rail.
(e.6) There must be at least 3 inches of clearance between handrails or railings and any other object.
(e.7) Floor opening covers can be made of any material strong enough to meet the following requirements: (i) trench or conduit covers and their supports, located in plant roadways, must be able to carry a truck rear-axle load of at least 20,000 pounds; (ii) manhole covers and their supports, located in plant roadways, must comply with local standard highway requirements or be able to carry a truck rear-axle load of at least 20,000 pounds; and (iii) floor opening covers can be made of any material that meets strength requirements. Covers projecting not over 1 inch above floor level must have all edges chamfered to an angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal. All hinges, handles, bolts, etc., must set flush with the floor or cover surface.
(e.8) Skylight screens must be able to withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied perpendicularly at any one area on the screen. They must not deflect downward enough to break the glass below. Screens must be of grillwork with openings not over 4 inches long or of slatwork with openings not over 2 inches wide with unrestricted length.
(e.9) Wall opening barriers (rails, rollers, picket fences and half doors) must be able to withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction (except upward) at any point on the top rail or corresponding member.
(e.10) Wall opening grab handles must be at least 12 inches long and mounted to give 3 inches of clearance from the side framing of the wall opening. Such handles must be able to withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point of the handle.
(e.11) Wall opening screens must be able to withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied horizontally at any point on the near side. They can be of solid construction, grillwork with openings not over 8 inches long or slatwork with openings not over 4 inches wide of unrestricted length.
Fixed Industrial Stairs (1910.24)
(h) Railings and handrails. Provide standard railings on the open sides of all exposed stairways and stair platforms. Provide handrails on at least one side of closed stairways, preferably on the right side descending. Install railing and handrails in accordance with 1910.23.
Fixed Ladders (1910.27)
(d.5) Ladder safety devices can be used on tower, water tank and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length in place of cage protection. No landing platform is required. All ladder safety devices, such as those that incorporate lifebelts, friction brakes and sliding attachments, must meet the design requirements of the ladders they serve.
Safety Requirements for Scaffolding (1910.28)
(g.9) Each worker must be protected by a safety lifebelt attached to a lifeline. The lifeline must be securely attached to substantial members of the structure (not the scaffold), or to securely rigged lines that will safely suspend the worker in case of a fall.
(j.4) Boatswain's chairs. The worker must be protected by a safety lifebelt attached to a lifeline. The lifeline must be secured to substantial members of the structure (not the scaffold), or to securely rigged lines that will safely suspend the worker in case of a fall.
(n.8) Needle beam scaffold. Each worker working 20 feet or more above the ground or floor and working with both hands must be protected by a safety lifebelt attached to a lifeline. Attach the lifeline to a substantial structural member (not the scaffold), or to securely rigged lines that will suspend the worker in case of a fall.
(r.3) Window-jack scaffolds. These scaffolds must have suitable guardrails unless safety belts with lifelines attached are provided for the worker.
(s.3) Roofing brackets. Catch platforms for working areas more than 20 feet high must have a safety rail, midrail and toeboard, unless employees are protected by a safety belt with lifeline.
(t.2) Crawling boards or chicken ladders. String a firmly fastened lifeline of at least three-quarter inch rope beside each crawling board for a handhold.
(u.6) Float or ship scaffolds. Protect each worker by a safety lifebelt attached to a lifeline. It must be securely attached to a substantial structural member or rigged line that will safely suspend the worker in case of a fall.
Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance (1910.66)
(j) Personal fall protection. Employers must provide personal fall arrest systems that meet the requirements outlined in Appendix C, Section I.
Welding, Cutting and Brazing (1910.252)
(b.1.i) A welder or helper working on a platform, scaffold or runway must be protected against falling by the use of railings, safety belts, lifelines or other equally effective safeguards.
(b.4.iv) Means must be provided to remove a welder working in a confined space in case of emergency. When safety belts and lifelines are used for this purpose, they must be attached so that the welder's body will not jam in a small exit opening.
Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills (1910.261)
(b.5) Vessel entering. Lifelines and safety harnesses must be worn by anyone entering closed vessels, tanks, chip bins and similar equipment, and a standby must be stationed outside to handle the line and summon aid in an emergency.
(e.18) Chipper spouts. Arrange the feed system so that the operator does not stand in a direct line with the chipper spout. Enclose spouts to at least 42 inches high. When other protection is not sufficient, operators must wear safety belt lines so fastened that they cannot fall into the throat of the chute.
(g.2.iii) During inspection, repairs or maintenance of acid towers, employees must have a safety belt and attached lifeline, as well as eye and respiratory protection. The line must extend to an attendant stationed outside the tower opening.
(g.4.i.) Workers entering acid tanks must be provided with supplied-air respirators, lifebelts and attached lifelines.
(g.15.iii) No inspector can enter a digester without a safety belt and lifeline and at least one other experienced employee stationed outside to handle the line and summon help. All lifelines must be inspected before each use.
(c.21.i) Whole-log chippers. A safety belt and lifeline must be worn by workers at or near the spout. Lifelines must be short enough to prevent workers from falling into the chipper.
(c.21.ii.C) Employees feeding hog mills must be provided with safety belts and lines unless guarded.
(g.1) Personal climbing equipment. Safety belts and straps are required at heights of 4 feet or more on poles, towers or other similiar structures.
(n.7-8) Overhead lines. On outside work platforms, use safety straps and body belts unless railings are provided. Wear safety belts and straps when working on poles, towers or similar structures that lack suitably guarded work areas.
Requirements from the Construction Industry
Safety Belts, Lifelines and Lanyards (1926.104)
(a) Lifelines, safety belts and lanyards must be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt or lanyard actually subjected to inservice loading, as distinguished from static load testing, must be immediately removed from service and not used again for employee safeguarding.
(b) Lifelines must be secured above the point-of-operation to an anchorage or structural member capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of 5,400 pounds.
(c) Lifelines used on rock-scaling operations, or in areas where the lifeline may be subjected to cutting or abrasion, must be a minimum of 7/8-inch wire core manila rope. For all other lifeline applications, a minimum of 3/4-inch manila rope or equivalent, with a minimum breaking strength of 5,400 pounds, must be used.
(d) Safety belt lanyards must be a minimum of 1/2 inch nylon or equivalent, with a maximum length to provide for a fall of no greater than 6 feet. The rope must have a nominal breaking strength of 5,400 pounds.
(e) All safety belt and lanyard hardware must be drop forged or pressed steel, cadmium plated in accordance with type 1, Class B plating specified in Federal Specification QQ-P-416. The surface must be smooth and free of sharp edges.
(f) All safety belt and lanyard hardware, except rivets, must be capable of withstanding a tensile loading of 4,000 pounds without cracking, breaking or taking a permanent deformation.
Safety Nets (1926.105)
(a) Safety nets must be provided when workplaces are more than 25 feet above the ground or water surface, or other surfaces where the use of ladders, scaffolds, catch platforms, temporary floors, safety lines or safety belts is impractical.
(b) Where safety net protection is required, operations must not be undertaken until the net is in place and has been tested.
(c.1) Nets must extend 8 feet beyond the edge of the work surface, but in no case more than 25 feet below it. Nets must be hung with sufficient clearance to prevent user's contact with the surfaces or structures below. Such clearances must be determined by impact load testing.
(c.2) It is intended that only one level of nets be required for bridge construction.
(d) Net mesh size must not exceed 6 inches by 6 inches. All new nets must meet accepted performance standards of 17,500 foot-pounds minimum impact resistance as determined and certified by the manufacturers, and bear a label of the proof test. Edge ropes must provide a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.
(e) Forged steel safety hooks or shackles must be used to fasten the net to its supports.
(f) Connections between net panels must develop the full strength of the net.
Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices (1926.502)
(a) General. (1) Fall protection systems must comply with the provisions of this section.
(a.2) Employers must provide and install fall protection systems and comply with requirements of this subpart.
(b) Guardrail systems. (1) The top edge height of top rails, or equivalent guardrail systems, must be 42 inches +/- 3 inches above the walking/working level. When conditions allow, the height of the top edge can exceed the 45-inch height, provided the system meets all other criteria.
(b.2) Install midrails, screens or equivalent intermediate structural members between the top edge of the guardrail and the walking/working surface when no wall or parapet wall at least 21 inches high exists.
(b.2.i) Install midrails midway at a height between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working level.
(b.2.ii) Screens and mesh must extend from the top rail to the walking/working level and along the entire opening between top rail supports.
(b.2.iii) Intermediate members must be no more than 19 inches apart.
(b.iv) Install other structural members such that there are no openings in the guardrail system more than 19 inches wide.
(b.3) Guardrail systems must withstand, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds applied within 2 inches of the top edge, in any outward or downward direction, at any point along the top edge.
(b.4) When the 200 pound test load specified in (b.3) is applied in a downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail must not deflect to a height less than 39 inches above the walking/working level.
(b.5) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels and equivalent structural members must withstand, without failure, a force of at least 150 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the midrail or other member.
(b.6) Guardrail system surfaces must not cause injury to employees or snag clothing.
(b.7) The ends of all top rails and midrails must not overhang the terminal posts, except where they do not form a projection hazard.
(b.8) Do not use steel banding and plastic banding as top rails or midrails.
(b.9) Top rails and midrails must be at least 1/4 inch in diameter to prevent cuts and lacerations. Flag wire rope used for top rails at no more than 6 foot intervals.
(b.10) At hoisting areas, place a chain, gate or removable guardrail section across the access opening between guardrail sections when hoisting operations are not taking place.
(b.11) Erect guardrail systems on all unprotected sides or edges of the hole.
(b.12) When using guardrail systems around holes used for passing materials, place removable guardrail sections around two sides. When not using the hole, close or cover the guardrail system on all sides or edges.
(b.13) When using guardrail systems around holes used as points of access, place a gate so that a person cannot walk directly into the hole.
(b.14) Erect guardrails on each unprotected side or edge of ramps and runways.
(b.15) Frequently inspect manila, plastic or synthetic rope used as top rails or midrails to ensure that they continue to meet the strength requirements of (b.3).
(c) Safety net systems. (1) Install safety nets as close as practical under the walking/working surface, but in no case more than 30 feet below it. When using nets on bridges, the potential fall from the walking/working surface to the net must be unobstructed.
(c.2) Safety nets must extend outward from the outermost projection of the work surface as required in this section.
(c.3) Install safety nets with sufficient clearance under them to prevent contact with the surface or structures below when subjected to an impact force equal to the drop test in (c.4).
(c.4) Safety nets and their installations must absorb an impact force equal to that produced by the drop test in (c.4.i).
(c.4.i) Except as provided in (c.4.ii), drop-test safety nets and safety net installations at the jobsite after initial installation and before being used as a fall protection system, whenever relocated, after major repairs and at 6 month intervals if left in one place. The drop test must consist of a 500 pound bag of sand 30 +/- 2 inches in diameter dropped into the net from the highest walking/working surface at which employees are exposed to fall hazards, but not from less than 42 inches.
(c.4.ii) When employers can demonstrate that performing the drop-test in (c.4.i) is unreasonable, they must certify that the net and net installation is in compliance with the provisions of (c.3) and (c.4.i).
(c.5) Do not use defective nets. Inspect safety nets at least once a week for wear, damage and other deterioration. Inspect nets after any occurrence that may affect the integrity of the system.
(c.6) Remove materials, scrap pieces, equipment and tools that have fallen into the net as soon as possible and before the next work shift.
(c.7) The size of each safety net mesh opening must not exceed 36 square inches or be longer than 6 inches on any side. The opening, measured center-to-center, must not be longer than 6 inches.
(c.8) Each safety net must have a border rope for webbing with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.
(c.9) Connections between safety net panels must be as strong as integral net components and spaced no more than 6 inches apart.
(d) Personal fall arrest systems. Personal fall arrest systems and their use must comply with the provisions set forth here. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts are no longer acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system.
(d.1) Connectors must be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of equivalent materials.
(d.2) Connectors must have a corrosion-resistant finish and smooth surfaces and edges to prevent damage to interfacing parts of the system.
(d.3) Dee-rings and snaphooks must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds.
(d.4) Dee-rings and snaphooks must be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds without cracking or breaking.
(d.5) Snaphooks must be sized to fit with the member they are connected to in order to prevent unintentional disengagement, or be a locking type snaphook designed and used to prevent the disengagement of the snaphook. Effective January 1, 1998, only locking type snaphooks can be used.
(d.6) Unless the snaphook is a locking type and designed for the following connections, snaphooks must not be engaged: (i) directly to webbing, rope or wire rope; (ii) to each other; (iii) to a dee-ring to which another snaphook or other connector is attached; (iv) to a horizontal lifeline; or (v) to any object that is not shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snaphook such that unintentional disengagement can occur by the connected object depressing the snaphook keeper and releasing itself.
(d.7) On suspended scaffolds or similar work platforms with horizontal lifelines that may become vertical, the devices used to connect a horizontal lifeline must lock in both directions on the lifeline.
(d.8) A qualified person must supervise the design, installation and use of horizontal lifelines as part of a complete fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two.
(d.9) Lanyards and vertical lifelines must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.
(d.10.i) Except as in (d.10.ii), when vertical lifelines are used, each employee must be attached to a separate lifeline. (d.10.ii) During elevator shaft construction, two employees can be attached to the same lifeline in the hoistway, provided that both employees are working atop a false car that is equipped with guardrails, the strength of the lifeline is 10,000 pounds and all requirements of this section are met.
(d.11) Protect lifelines from being cut or abraded.
(d.12) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet or less must sustain a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard fully extended.
(d.13) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that do not limit free fall distance to 2 feet or less, ripstitch lanyards, and tearing and deforming lanyards must sustain a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard fully extended.
(d.14) Ropes and straps used in lanyards, lifelines and strength components of body belts and body harnesses must be made from synthetic fibers.
(d.15) Anchorages used for the attachment of personal fall arrest equipment must be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms, support at least 5,000 pounds per employee attached or be designed, installed and used: (i) as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two; and (ii) under the supervision of a qualified person.
(d.16) Personal fall arrest systems that stop a fall must: (i) limit the maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds when used with a body belt; (ii) limit the maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds when used with a body harness; (iii) be rigged so an employee can neither free fall for more than 6 feet nor contact any lower level; (iv) bring an employee to a complete stop and limit the maximum deceleration distance to 3.5 feet; and (v) have the strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet, or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.
(d.17) The attachment point of a body belt must be located in the center of the wearer's back. The attachment point of a body harness must be located in center of the wearer's back near shoulder level.
(d.18) Use body belts, harnesses and components only for employee protection and not to hoist materials.
(d.19) Immediately remove from service any personal fall arrest system subjected to impact loading. Do not use it again until it is inspected and determined to be competent.
(d.20) Employers must provide prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or assure that employees can rescue themselves.
(d.21) Inspect personal fall arrest systems prior to each use for wear and damage. Remove any defective components.
(d.22) Body belts must be at least 1 5/8 inches wide.
(d.23) Do not attach personal fall arrest systems to guardrail systems or hoists except as specified in other subparts of this Part.
(d.24) When using personal fall arrest systems at hoist areas, rig them to allow the movement of the employee only as far as the edge of the walking/working surface.
(e) Positioning device systems. (1) Rig positioning devices so that an employee cannot free fall more than 2 feet.
(e.2) Secure positioning devices to an anchorage that can support at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall, or 3,000 pounds, whichever is greater.
(e.3) Same as (d.1).
(e.4) Same as (d.2).
(e.5) Connecting assemblies must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds
(e.6) Same as (d.4).
(e.7) Same as (d.5).
(e.8) Same as (d.6).
(e.9) Inspect positioning devices prior to each use for wear and damage. Remove defective components from service.
(e.10) Use body belts, harnesses and components only for employee protection and not to hoist materials.
(f) Warning line systems. Warning line systems and their use must comply with the following provisions.
(f.1) Erect a warning line around all sides of roof work areas.
(f.1.i) When not using mechanical equipment, erect a warning line no less than 6 feet from the roof edge.
(f.1.ii) When using mechanical equipment, erect the warning line no less than 6 feet from the roof edge, parallel to the direction of the mechanical equipment operation, and not less than 10 feet from the roof edge perpendicular to the direction of the mechanical equipment operation.
(f.1.iii) Connect points-of-access, materials handling areas, storage areas and hoisting areas to the work area by an access path formed by two warning lines.
(f.1.iv) When not using the path to the point-of-access, place a rope, wire or other barricade across the path at the point where it intersects the warning line erected around the work area.
(f.2) Warning lines must consist of ropes, wires or chains and supporting stanchions erected as follows.
(f.2.i) Flag rope, wire or chain at not more than 6 foot intervals with highly visible material.
(f.2.ii) Rig and support the rope, wire or chain in a way that its lowest point is no less than 34 inches from the walking/working surface, and its highest point is no more than 39 inches from the walking/working surface.
(f.2.iii) After being erected, the rope, wire or chain must withstand a force of at least 16 pounds, without tipping, applied horizontally against the stanchion, 30 inches above the walking/working surface, perpendicular to the warning line and in the direction of the floor, roof or platform edge.
(f.2.iv) The rope, wire or chain must have a minimum tensile strength of 500 pounds, and after attachment to stanchions, must support, without breaking, the loads applied to the stanchions as prescribed in (f.2.iii).
(f.2.v) Attach the line at each stanchion so that pulling on one section of the line between stanchions will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections before the stanchion tips over.
(f.3) Do not allow employees in the area between the roof edge and the warning line unless they are performing roof work.
(f.4) Use or store mechanical equipment on roofs in areas where employees are protected by a warning line system, guardrail system or personal fall arrest system.
(g) Controlled access zones. (1) Use control lines to control access to areas where the leading edge and other operations are taking place.
(g.1.i) Erect control lines no less than 6 feet and no more than 25 feet from the unprotected or leading edge.
(g.1.ii) When erecting precast concrete members, erect the control line no less than 6 feet and no more than 60 feet, or half the length of the member being erected, whichever is less, from the leading edge.
(g.1.iii) The control line must extend along the entire length of the unprotected or leading edge and be approximately parallel to it. (g.1.iv) Connect the control line on each side to a guardrail system or wall.
(g.2) When used to control access to overhand bricklaying and related areas: (i) define the controlled access zone by erecting a control line no less than 10 feet and no more than 15 feet from the working edge; (ii) the control line must extend for a distance sufficient for the controlled access zone to enclose all employees performing overhand bricklaying and related work; (iii) erect additional control lines at each end to enclose the controlled access zone; and (iv) only permit employee engaged in overhand bricklaying in the controlled access zone.
(g.3) Control lines must consist of ropes, wires, tapes or equivalent materials and supporting stanchions as follows.
(g.3.i) Same as (f.2.i).
(g.3.ii) Rig each line in a way that its lowest point is no less than 39 inches from the walking/working surface and its highest point is no more than 45 inches when overhand bricklaying is taking place.
(g.3.iii) Each line must have a minimum breaking strength of 200 pounds.
(g.4) Enlarge controlled access zones on floors and roofs where guardrail systems are not in place prior to the beginning of overhand bricklaying operations.
(g.5) On floors and roofs where guardrails need to be removed to allow work to take place, only that portion of the guardrail can be removed.
(h) Safety monitoring systems. (1) Employers must designate a competent person to monitor the safety of other employees and ensure the safety monitor: (i) recognizes fall hazards; (ii) warns employees when it appears they are unaware of a fall hazard or are acting unsafely; (iii) is on the same walking/working surface and within employees' visual sight; (iv) is close enough to communicate orally; and (v) does not have any other responsibilities.
(h.2) Do not store mechanical equipment where safety monitoring systems are being used.
(h.3) Do not let any employee, other than the one engaged in roofing work, in an area where an employee is being protected by a safety monitoring system.
(h.4) Employees working in controlled access zones must comply with fall hazard warnings from safety monitors.
(i) Covers. (1) Covers in roadways and vehicular aisles must support, without failure, at least twice the maximum axle load of the largest vehicle expected to cross the cover.
(i.2) All other covers must support, without failure, at least twice the weight of employees, equipment and materials.
(i.3) Secure all covers when installed to prevent accidental displacement by the wind, equipment or employees.
(i.4) Color code all covers or mark them with the word "HOLE" or "COVER."
(j) Protection from falling objects. (1) Erect toeboards along the edge of the overhead walking/working surface.
(j.2) Toeboards must withstand, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point on the board.
(j.3) Toeboards must be a minimum of 3 1/2 inches vertically from their top edge to the level of the walking/working surface. They must not have more than 1/4 inch clearance above the walking/working surface and must be solid.
(j.4) Erect paneling or screening where tools, equipment or materials are piled higher than the top edge of a toeboard.
(j.5) When using guardrail systems as falling object protection, the openings must be small enough to prevent passage.
(j.6) During the performance of overhand bricklaying or related work: (i) do not store materials, except masonry and mortar, within 4 feet of the working edge; and (ii) keep excess mortar, broken masonry units and other materials clear from the work area.
(j.7) During the performance of roofing work: (i) do not store materials and equipment within 6 feet of a roof edge unless there are guardrails; and (ii) ensure materials that are piled or stacked are stable and self-supporting.
(j.8) Canopies must be strong enough to prevent collapse and penetration by any objects that may fall onto them.
(k) Fall protection plan. This option is available only to employees engaged in leading edge work, precast concrete erection work or residential construction work.
(k.1) The plan must be prepared by a qualified person and specifically intended for the site of the work being performed. The plan must be kept up-to-date.
(k.2) Any changes to the plan must be approved by a qualified person.
(k.3) A copy of the plan with all approved changes must be maintained at the jobsite.
(k.4) Implementation of the plan must be under the supervision of a competent person.
(k.5) The plan must document the reasons why conventional fall protection systems are infeasible or why their use would create a greater hazard.
(k.6) The plan must include a written discussion of other measures that will be taken to reduce or eliminate fall hazards for workers who cannot be protected in the conventional way.
(k.7) The plan must identify each location where conventional fall protection systems cannot be used. These locations must then be classified as controlled access zones and employers must comply with the criteria of (g).
(k.8) Where no other alternative measure has been implemented, employers must implement a safety monitoring system in conformance with (h).
(k.9) The plan must include a statement that provides the name or other method of identification for each employee designated to work in a controlled access zone. No other employees can enter such zones.
(k.10) In the event that an employee falls or another serious incident occurs, employers must investigate the circumstances of the fall or incident to determine if the plan needs to be changed, and implement such changes to prevent similar falls or incidents.
OSHA Instruction (issued 12-8-95) STD 3.1
Interim fall protection requirements for residential construction were clarified and expanded under the new Subpart M. In recognition of alternative fall protection methods used in the industry, OSHA included sample fall protection plan language in Appendix E. However, employers were concerned that OSHA was not specific enough about what constitutes adequate fall protection for various construction operations, mainly because protective measures commonly used in the residential construction industry were not acknowledged in Subpart M. Subsequently, OSHA has agreed to initiate further proceedings. Until a definitive ruling is made, refer to this specified instruction in full for details.
Requirements from the Maritime Standards
Mechanical Paint Removers (1915.34)
(c.3.v) Protect abrasive blasting operators with a safety belt when blasting is done from elevations where railings do not provide adequate protection.
Guarding of Deck Openings and Edges (1915.73)
(b) Cover or guard flush manholes and similar openings to a height of at least 30 inches, except where such guards are impractical because of the work in progress.
(c) Open hatches not protected by coamings at least 24 inches high and similar large openings must be guarded to a height of 36 to 42 inches, except where such guards are impractical because of the work in progress.
(d) Edges of decks, platforms and similar flat surfaces that are more than 5 feet above a solid surface must have adequate guardrails 42 to 45 inches high with a midrail, unless the nature of the work in progress or the physical conditions do not allow their use or installation.
(f) Open sections of bilges must have guardrails, except where such rails would interfere with work in progress. At least two 10 inch planks side-by-side, or the equivalent, must be laid across the opening if it is in a walkway.
(g) Barricade gratings, walkways and catwalks without gratings or ladders with adequate guardrails.
Working Surfaces (1915.77)
(c) Employees working more than 5 feet above a solid surface must have safety belts and lifelines if scaffolds or sloping ladders are not provided.
Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) (1915.159)
The criteria of this section apply to PFAS and their use. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts and non-locking snaphooks are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system.
(a) Criteria for connectors and anchorages. (1) Connectors must be made of drop forged, pressed or formed steel or be made of materials with equivalent strength.
(a.2) Connectors must have a corrosion-resistant finish and all surfaces and edges must be smooth to prevent damage to the interfacing parts of the system.
(a.3) D-rings and snaphooks must be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn).
(a.4) D-rings and snaphooks must be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 Kn) without cracking, breaking or being permanently deformed.
(a.5) Snaphooks must be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snaphook caused by depression of the snaphook keeper by the connected member, or be of a locking type that is designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snaphook through contact of the snaphook keeper by the connected member.
(a.6) Snaphooks must not be engaged unless they are a locking type designed and used to prevent disengagement from connections: (i) directly to webbing, rope or wire rope; (ii) to each other; (iii) to a D-ring to which another snaphook or other connector is attached; (iv) to a horizontal lifeline; or (v) to any object that is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snaphook such that unintentional disengagement could occur by the connected object depressing the snaphook keeper and releasing itself.
(a.7) On suspended scaffolds or similar work platforms with horizontal lifelines that may become vertical lifelines, the devices used for connection to the horizontal lifeline must be capable of locking in any direction on it.
(a.8) Anchorages used for attaching personal fall arrest equipment must be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms.
(a.9) Anchorages must be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn) per employee attached, or be designed, installed and used: (i) as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two; and (ii) under the direction and supervision of a qualified person.
(b) Criteria for lifelines, lanyards and personal fall arrest systems. (1) When vertical lifelines are used, each employee must be provided with a separate lifeline.
(b.2) Vertical lifelines and lanyards must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn). (
b.3) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distances to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less must be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds (13.3 Kn) applied to a self-retracting lifeline or lanyard when fully extended.
(b.4) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that do not limit free fall distances to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less, ripstitch lanyards and tearing and deforming lanyards must be capable of sustaining a minimum static tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn) applied to the device when fully extended.
(b.5) Horizontal lifelines must be designed, installed and used under the supervision of a qualified person, and only as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two.
(b.6) Effective November 20, 1996, personal fall arrest systems must: (i) limit the maximum arresting force on a falling employee to 900 pounds (4 Kn) when used with a body belt; (ii) limit the maximum arresting force on a falling employee to 1,800 pounds (8 Kn) when used with a body harness; (iii) bring a falling employee to a complete stop and limit the maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 m); and (iv) have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.
Note to (b.6): A personal fall arrest system that meets the criteria and protocols contained in Appendix B is considered to comply with (b.6). If the combined tool and body weight is 310 pounds (140 kg) or more, systems that meet the criteria and protocols contained in Appendix B will be deemed to comply with (b.6) only if they are modified appropriately to provide protection for the extra weight of the employee and tools.
(b.7) Personal fall arrest systems must be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m) nor contact any lower level.
(c) Criteria for selection, use and care of systems and system components. (1) Lanyards must be attached to employees using personal fall arrest systems, as follows: (i) the attachment point of a body harness must be located in the center of the wearer's back near the shoulder level, or above the wearer's head. If the free fall distance is limited to less than 20 inches, the attachment point can be located in the chest position; and (ii) the attachment point of a body belt must be located in the center of the wearer's back.
(c.2) Ropes and straps (webbing) used in lanyards, lifelines and strength components of body belts and body harnesses must be made from synthetic fibers or wire rope.
(c.3) Ropes, belts, harnesses and lanyards must be compatible with their hardware.
(c.4) Lifelines and lanyards must be protected against cuts, abrasions, burns from hot work operations and deterioration by acids, solvents and other chemicals.
(c.5) Personal fall arrest systems must be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage and other deterioration. Defective components must be removed from service.
(c.6) Personal fall arrest systems and components subjected to impact loading must be immediately removed from service and not used again for employee protection until inspected and determined by a qualified person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.
(c.7) Employers must provide prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall, or ensure that employees can rescue themselves.
(c.8) Body belts must be at least 1 5/8 inches (4.1 cm) wide. (c.9) Personal fall arrest systems and components must be used only for employee fall protection and not to hoist materials.
(d) Training. Before using personal fall arrest equipment, each affected employee must be trained to understand the application limits of the equipment and proper hook-up, anchoring and tie-off techniques. Affected employees must also be trained so that they can demonstrate the proper use, inspection and storage of their equipment.
Positioning Device Systems (1915.160)
(a) Criteria for connectors and anchorages. (1) Connectors must have a corrosion-resistant finish and all surfaces and edges must be smooth to prevent damage to interfacing parts of the system.
(a.2) Connecting assemblies must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn).
(a.3) Positioning device systems must be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall.
(a.4) Snaphooks, unless each is of a locking type designed and used to prevent disengagement, must not be connected to each other. As of January 1, 1998, only locking type snaphooks can be used in positioning device systems.
(b) Criteria for positioning device systems. (1) Restraint (tether) lines must have a minimum breaking strength of 3,000 pounds (13.3 Kn).
(b.2) The following system performance criteria for positioning device systems are effective November 20, 1996: (i) a window cleaner's positioning system must be capable of withstanding, without failure, a drop test that consists of a 6 foot (1.83 m) drop of a 250 pound (113 kg) weight. The system must limit the initial arresting force to not more than 2,000 pounds (8.89 Kn), with a duration not to exceed 2 milliseconds. The system must limit any subsequent arresting forces imposed on the falling employee to not more than 1,000 pounds (4.45 Kn); and (ii) all other positioning device systems must be capable of withstanding, without failure, a drop test that consists of a 4 foot (1.2 m) drop of a 250 pound (113 kg) weight.
Note to (b.2): Positioning device systems that comply with the provisions of Section 2 of Appendix B are deemed to meet the requirements of this paragraph.
(c) Criteria for the use and care of positioning device systems. (1) Positioning device systems must be inspected before each use for mildew, wear, damage and other deterioration. Defective components must be removed from service.
(c.2) A positioning device system or component subjected to impact loading must be immediately removed from service and not used again for employee protection unless inspected and determined by a qualified person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.
(d) Training. Before using a positioning device system, employees must be trained in the application limits, proper hook-up, anchoring and tie-off techniques, methods of use, inspection and storage of positioning device systems.
Line Handling (1917.16)
(b) Grab lines or rails must be installed on the sides of permanent structures when the stringpiece or apron width is too narrow for safe footing.
(a.2) Where employees cross over moving conveyors, an elevated walkway with a guardrail or equivalent means of protection must be provided. Suitable guarding must also be provided when employees pass under moving conveyors.
Guarding of Edges (1917.112)
(b.1) Provide guardrails where employees are exposed to floor or wall openings or waterside edges that present a falling hazard greater than 4 feet.
(b.2-3) Guardrails are not required: (i) at loading platforms and docks; (ii) at waterside edges used for cargo handling; (iii) on the working sides of work platforms, skids, etc.; or (iv) on railroad rolling stock, highway vehicles, intermodel containers or similiar equipment. Where guardrails are impractical due to machinery requirements or work processes, an alternate means of protection, such as safety nets, may then be used.
(c) Criteria for guardrails. Guardrails must meet the following criteria.
(c.1) Guardrails must be capable of withstanding a force of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at mid-span of the top rail or at the uppermost point if there is no top rail.
(c.2) If not of solid baluster, grillwork, slatted or other similar construction, guardrails must consist of top rails and midrails. Position midrails at approximately one-half the height of the top rail.
(c.3) Guardrails installed before October 3, 1983, must be at least 36 inches high. Those installed after October 3, 1983, must be at least 42 inches, +/- 2 inches, high.
(c.4) Nonrigid railings such as chain or wire rope must have a maximum sag limit at the mid-point between posts of 6 inches or less.
(c.5) Top rails must not present puncture or laceration hazards.
(c.6) Rail ends must not have hazardous projections.
(d) Toeboards. When employees below could be exposed to falling objects, toeboards at least 3 inches high must be provided. Toeboards must withstand a force of 50 pounds applied in any direction. Drainage clearance under toeboards is permitted.
(e) Stair railings. Stair railings must withstand a force of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction and not be more than 36 inches or less than 32 inches in height from the upper top rail surface to the tread surface in line with the leading edge of the tread. Provide railings and midrails at any stairway with four or more risers as follows: (1) at least one railing for stairways less than 44 inches wide; and (2) a stair rail or handrail on each side for stairways between 44 and 88 inches wide and an additional intermediate handrail for stairways over 88 inches wide.
(f) Condition. Maintain railings in good repair and free of sharp edges.
Platforms and Skids (1917.115)
(a) Guardrails or alternate means of fall protection such as safety nets are required where platforms and skids extending from piers, transit sheds or lofts are used for landing or hooking on drafts.
Elevators and Escalators (1917.116)
(f) Elevator landing openings must have doors, gates or equivalent protection to prevent employees from falling into the shaft when the elevator is not at that landing.
(j.2) Protect open sides of emergency landings by guardrails.
(k) The ascending sides of manlift floor openings must have cones or bevel guards to direct the user through the openings.
Fixed Ladders (1917.118)
(e.1) Fixed ladders over 20 feet in height must have a cage, well or ladder safety device.
Guarding Temporary Hazards (1917.125)
Guard ditches, pits, excavations and surfaces in poor repair by barricades, rails or similar effective means.
Stowed Cargo and Temporary Landing Surfaces (1918.32)
(c) When two gangs are working in the same hatch on different levels, rig and securely fasten a vertical safety net so as to prevent people or cargo from falling.
Open Hatches (1918.35)
Where employees must work around open weather deck hatches not protected to a height of 24 inches by coamings, such openings must be guarded by taut lines or barricades that are 36 to 42 inches high, except on the side on which cargo is being worked. Any portable stanchions or uprights used must be supported securely.
Weather Deck Rails (1918.36)
Removable weather deck rails must be kept in place except for as long as cargo operations in progress require them to be removed.
Containerized Cargo Operations (1918.85)
(j) Fall protection. (1) Containers being handled by container gantry cranes. (i) After July 26, 1999, where a container gantry crane is being used to handle containers, employers must ensure that no employee is on top of a container. Exception: An employee can be on top of a container only to perform a necessary function that cannot be eliminated by the use of positive container securing devices.6
(j.1.ii) After July 26, 1999, employers must ensure that positive container securing devices, such as semi-automatic twist locks and above deck cell guides, are used wherever container gantry cranes are used to hoist containers.
(j.1.iii) Employers must ensure that each employee on top of a container is protected from fall hazards by a fall protection system that meets the requirements of (k).
(j.2) Containers being handled by other hoisting devices. Where containers are being handled by hoisting devices other than container gantry cranes, employers must ensure that each employee on top of a container is protected by a fall protection system that meets the requirements of (k).
(j.3) Other exposure to fall hazards. Employers must ensure that each employee exposed to a fall hazard is protected by a fall protection system that meets the requirements of (k). Exception: Where employers can demonstrate that fall protection for an employee would be infeasible or create a greater hazard due to vessel design, container design, container storage, other cargo stowage, container handling equipment, lifting gear or port conditions, they must alert affected employees about the fall hazard and instruct them in ways to minimize their exposure.
(k) Fall protection systems. When fall protection systems required by (j) are employed, the following must apply. (1) Each fall protection system component, except anchorages, must have fall arrest/restraint as its only use.
(k.2) Each fall protection system subjected to impact loading must be immediately withdrawn from service and not used again until inspected and determined by a designated person to be undamaged and suitable for use.
(k.3) Each fall protection system must be rigged so that a falling employee cannot contact any lower level stowage or vessel structure.
(k.4) Each fall protection system adopted for use must have an energy absorbing mechanism that will produce an arresting force on an employee of not greater than 1,800 pounds (8 kN).
(k.5) Each component of a fall protection system must be designed and used to prevent accidental disengagement.
(k.6) Each fall protection system's fixed anchorages must be capable of sustaining a force of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) or be certified as capable of sustaining at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall. Such certification must be made by a qualified person.7 When more than one employee is attached to an anchorage, these limits must be multiplied by the number of employees attached.
(k.7) When "live" (activated) container gantry crane lifting beams or attached devices are used as anchorage points: (i) the crane must be placed into a "slow" speed mode; (ii) the crane must be equipped with a remote shut-off switch that can stop trolley, gantry and hoist functions and is in the control of the employee(s) attached to the beam; and (iii) a visible or audible indicator must be present to alert exposed employee(s) when the remote shut-off is operational.
(k.8) Fall protection system components, other than anchorages, must be certified as a unit of being capable of sustaining at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall. Such certification must be made by a qualified person.8
(k.9) Each fall protection system must incorporate the use of a full body harness.
(k.10) Each device, such as a safety cage, used to transport an employee(s) by being attached to a container gantry crane spreader must have a secondary means to prevent accidental disengagement. The secondary means must be engaged.
(k.11) Each fall protection system must be inspected before each day's use by a designated person. Any defective components must be removed from service.
(k.12) Before using any fall protection system, employees must be trained in the use and application limits of the equipment, proper hookup, anchoring and tie-off techniques, methods of use and proper methods of equipment inspection and storage.
(k.13) Employers must establish and implement a procedure to retrieve personnel safely in case of a fall.
(l) Working along unguarded edges. Employers must provide, and ensure that employees use, fall protection that meets the requirements of (k) whenever they work along an unguarded edge where a fall hazard exists.
6Examples of work that may not be eliminated by positive container securing devices and that may require employees to work on top of containers include, but are not limited to, installing or removing bridge clamps, hooking up or detaching over-height containers or freeing a jammed semiautomatic twist lock.
7For the purposes of this paragraph, qualified person means one with a recognized degree or professional certificate and extensive knowledge and experience in the subject field who is capable of design, analysis, evaluation and specifications in the subject work, project or product.
8For the purposes of this paragraph, qualified person means one with a recognized degree or professional certificate and extensive knowledge and experience in the subject field who is capable of design, analysis, evaluation and specifications in the subject work, project or product.
Ship's Cargo Elevators (1918.87)
(c) Personnel must not be permitted to ride on an elevator's platform if a fall hazard exists.
(d) During elevator operation, each open deck that presents a fall hazard to employees must be effectively barricaded.
Log Operations (1918.88)
(d) When employees are working on log booms or cribs, lifelines must be furnished and hung overside to the water's edge.
Grain Fitting (1918.98)
(a.3) Employees working more than 8 feet high from elevated positions other than ladders or staging must have safety belts and lifelines or equivalent protection.
(d) When handling hatch covers in the interior of feeders, employees must be protected from falling by lifelines, properly tended, or by nets or other suitable means.
(e) During work inside an existing feeder, the hatch must be covered or employees must have adequate individual lifelines, tended if necessary, nets or other fall protection.
Maintenance and Repair Work in the Vicinity of Longshoring Operations (1918.96)
(b) Longshoring operations must not be carried on in the hold or on deck beneath work being conducted overhead when it exposes employees to falling object hazards.