View Allowable Stress, Minimum Yield and Modulus of Elasticity for Aluminum, Bronze, Stainless Steel and Steel.

Material

Allowable Stress (psi)

Minimum Yield (psi)

Modulus of Elasticity (psi)

Aluminum, 6061-T6

21,000

35,000

10,000,000

Aluminum, 6061-T6 (pipe)

24,000

35,000

10,000,000

Aluminum, 6063-T52

9,500

16,000

10,000,000

Aluminum, 6063-T52 (pipe)

11,500

16,000

10,000,000

Aluminum, 6063-T6

15,000

25,000

10,000,000

Aluminum, 6063-T6 (pipe)

18,000

25,000

10,000,000

Bronze, Alloy C38500

11,000

19,000

17,000,000

Red Brass, Alloy C23000 (pipe)

11,000

18,000

17,000,000

Stainless Steel, Type 304 (tubing)

30,000

55,000

28,000,000

Carbon Steel, C1010

20,000

28,000

29,000,000

Calculations for Structural Design:

Basic Equation: When calculating bending stresses, the basis of reasoning is that the bending moment (M) applied to a post or rail must be equaled by the resisting moment. The latter is determined by the unit stress (f) of the railing material and the properties of the railing section -- the section modulus (S).

M = f × S

Allowable Stress: The unit stress of a metal is determined by its composition and temper. In structural design, allowable design stress (fs), as used here, are based on a safety factor of 1.65, applied to minimum yield strength, which is generally accepted by the engineering profession. For aluminum round tube and pipe, the allowable stress is increased by a factor of 1.17.

Section Modulus, Neutral Axis: The section modulus (S) is determined by the size, shape and cross-sectional area of a section. It may differ for each of the two neutral axes. The neutral axis of a symmetrical section is the center line. Otherwise, it is the line which passes through the center of gravity of the section, parallel either to its longest or shorted dimension. The two axes, x and y, are perpendicular to each other. For round and for square sections, the section modulus (S) is the same for either axis. Otherwise it is described as Sx or Sy, depending on which axis is involved. Moment of Inertia: The moment of Inertia (I) about the x or y axis is the section modulus (S) multiplied by c, the distance of the neutral axis or any section from the extreme fibre, that is from the farthest edge of the section, measured at right angles to the axis.

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